The colloquial language spoken by the Jews during the time of the Talmud.

Literally, “four species.” The Torah specifies four species to bring together on Sukkot. The four species are: lulav (branches of palm trees), etrog (citron), hadasim (myrtle branches), and aravot (willows) (Leviticus 23:40).


Literally, “the holy ark,” often called “the ark.” cabinet in which Torah scrolls are kept in the synagogue’s sanctuary. In most synagogues in North America, the Aron HaKodesh is on the eastern wall so that when worshippers face the ark, they face toward Jerusalem.

Literally, “who makes us holy through commandments.” This prayer formula is included in any Jewish blessing that involves fulfillment of a commandment, such as lighting Shabbat candles.

Lit. "Germany"; includes Jews of European origin.

Calling up of the wedding couple to recite the Torah blessings on the Shabbat preceding the wedding.

"Our Father, Our King"/"Our Parent, Our Ruler" A prayer (and song) chanted during the High Holiday period. Describes two simultaneous ways in which people might relate to God: the intimate relationship of a parent and the powerful awe of a ruler.

Literally, "service" or "work;" usually refers to communal service or prayer to God, from ancient sacrifices to modern-day worship rituals.

Brachot (plural). Literally, “blessing;” follows a set formula that praises God; unique blessings exist for many different occasions.